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  • ... their judicial appointments. However, the skirmish involving the midnight judges had a much broader significance: it belonged to a fight that had begun shor ...nse of the states. The act added six new federal circuits with sixteen new judges. As a final measure, they also added dozens of new justices of the peace to
    6 KB (966 words) - 15:47, 2 December 2009
  • ...on southern courts, typically for personal gain. "Carpetbag" refers to the judges's practice of carrying their possessions with them in carpetbags.</i></p> ...in the South. A large number of these judges were known as "carpetbagging" judges because they were northerners who had relocated to the South for personal g
    2 KB (320 words) - 17:13, 2 December 2009

Page text matches

  • ...nd during the latter part of the common-law era (about the year 1600) when judges began to hold that an act alone could not create criminal liability unless
    2 KB (359 words) - 15:46, 2 December 2009
  • ...ay, actions against <span>[[Administrative Law|administrative law]]</span> judges, charges of merit-system violations, and prohibited personnel practices, in
    5 KB (698 words) - 15:47, 2 December 2009
  • ... their judicial appointments. However, the skirmish involving the midnight judges had a much broader significance: it belonged to a fight that had begun shor ...nse of the states. The act added six new federal circuits with sixteen new judges. As a final measure, they also added dozens of new justices of the peace to
    6 KB (966 words) - 15:47, 2 December 2009
  • ...litary judge's role is similar to that of a civilian trial judge. Military judges do not determine penalties and may only instruct the members of the court, ...udge Advocate General]]</span>&nbsp;of the appropriate service branch. CCA judges do not have tenure or fixed terms. They serve at the pleasure of the judge
    35 KB (5,501 words) - 17:05, 30 April 2010
  • ...liam O. Douglas|William O. Douglas]]</span> wrote: "I do not think we, the judges, were ever given the constitutional power to make definitions of obscenity.
    8 KB (1,290 words) - 21:18, 3 March 2011
  • ... law, spending time discussing legal issues with his father and with other judges and attorneys who were family friends. As a result, after two years at Yale
    4 KB (696 words) - 15:50, 2 December 2009
  • <p>The ALI was founded in 1923 by a group of American judges, lawyers, and law professors. Its goal was to resolve uncertainty and compl
    3 KB (424 words) - 15:50, 2 December 2009
  • <p>Members of the American Law Institute (ALI), a group of judges, lawyers, and legal scholars whose purpose is to clarify and improve the la <p>In addition, the MPC's influence is felt in the courts, where judges often rely on the code when handling substantive criminal law decisions. It
    4 KB (683 words) - 15:50, 2 December 2009
  • ...s and students argue them before professors or other lawyers, who serve as judges. Hypothetical cases often address matters of current political and constitu ...five to ten minutes, to convince the panel. As with real appellate courts, judges on the panel are free to interrupt the student advocate frequently and at a
    5 KB (839 words) - 15:51, 2 December 2009
  • ...atural Law|natural law]]</span> <i>of constant values and rules, and which judges all persons equally, irrespective of individual circumstances or cultural d
    3 KB (459 words) - 15:51, 2 December 2009
  • ...glish tradition. According to Young, the application of common law allowed judges too much latitude to impose standards that did not comport with public will .... He attempted to blunt their impact by urging the legislature to prohibit judges from using common-law precedent in Utah. On January 14, 1854, the legislatu
    8 KB (1,308 words) - 15:51, 2 December 2009
  • ...ty's case that justice cannot be served—often are made orally. Sometimes judges themselves take action on
    7 KB (1,100 words) - 20:50, 23 February 2010
  • ...ment personnel often consider potential motives in detecting perpetrators. Judges may consider the motives of a convicted defendant at sentencing and either
    4 KB (603 words) - 18:55, 24 February 2010
  • ...ial discovery" in advance of trial. The panel is composed of seven federal judges based throughout the United States, who have been appointed by the chief ju ... have been employed to deal with complex litigation. States have appointed judges to oversee product liability cases involving products such as asbestos, bre
    4 KB (689 words) - 23:37, 5 February 2010
  • ... Supreme Court retirements would lead President Bush to appoint a judge or judges who might vote to reverse <i>Roe v. Wade</i>, given the opportunity.</p>
    4 KB (683 words) - 15:56, 2 December 2009
  • ...<span>[[Human Rights|human rights]]</span> in the state of nature, federal judges have identified the liberties protected by the Due Process Clauses through
    26 KB (3,936 words) - 21:59, 8 January 2010
  • ...om publishing anything that did not conform to the good taste of Minnesota judges. The Minnesota Supreme Court upheld the law and the order against Near, pav
    8 KB (1,229 words) - 21:18, 3 March 2011
  • ...o was deprived of unabridged <span>[[Veto|veto]]</span> power, because the judges of the Council of Revision could overrule him.</p>
    7 KB (1,118 words) - 15:58, 2 December 2009
  • ...ion as states. A government composed of a governor, a secretary, and three judges appointed by Congress was established in the region north of the Ohio River
    3 KB (400 words) - 16:01, 2 December 2009
  • ...bers from the district, to forward recommendations to her. All five of the judges Norton ultimately recommended to the president had been active in D.C. lega ... of the city's budget, and for the right of D.C. residents to choose local judges.</p>
    7 KB (1,219 words) - 16:01, 2 December 2009
  • ...appointed or elected in a manner similar to the election or appointment of judges. However, as trade with Europe began, the demand for notaries increased bec
    9 KB (1,467 words) - 16:01, 2 December 2009
  • ...ion camp commandants who ordered the extermination of their prisoners, and judges who upheld Nazi practices.</p> ...shed the International Military Tribunal (IMT), which was a panel of eight judges, two named by each of the four Allied powers. One judge from each country a
    28 KB (4,372 words) - 16:02, 2 December 2009
  • ... the parties in order to recognize the existence of a contract, or whether judges were required to view the external acts of the parties and then determine, ...s and early 1900s adhered to the objective theory of contract. Among these judges and scholars were <span>[[Christopher Columbus Langdell|Christopher Columbu
    5 KB (916 words) - 16:03, 2 December 2009
  • This test permitted judges to look at objectionable words or passages without regard for the work as a
    16 KB (2,426 words) - 17:19, 6 April 2010
  • ...in Washington, D.C. There are also three regional offices where commission judges are stationed.</p>
    7 KB (1,076 words) - 16:04, 2 December 2009
  • ...icle"><p><i>An all-inclusive term for any type of court employee including judges, clerks, sheriffs, marshals, bailiffs, and constables.</i></p>
    278 B (46 words) - 16:04, 2 December 2009
  • ...ersons accused of small crimes. When these measures proved unsatisfactory, judges began calling upon groups of people in the community to make decisions. As
    3 KB (594 words) - 16:07, 2 December 2009
  • ...r, lasting until the sixteenth century. For a long period of time, English judges were selected only from the order.</p> ...inent legal scholarship and leadership among law students, law professors, judges, and practitioners.</p>
    3 KB (420 words) - 16:07, 2 December 2009
  • <div type="article"><p><i>The theory of interpretation by which judges attempt to ascertain the meaning of a particular provision of a state or fe ...riginalism, or intentionalism, the theory of original intent is applied by judges when they are asked to exercise the power of <span>[[Judicial Review|judici
    11 KB (1,756 words) - 16:07, 2 December 2009
  • ... in a particular court or for the trial of a designated action. A group of judges of a lesser number than the entire court convened to decide a case, such as
    740 B (131 words) - 16:10, 2 December 2009
  • ...any, New York, on November 8, 1838, into a family of prominent lawyers and judges. He attended private schools and studied abroad as a young man. He read the
    5 KB (747 words) - 16:13, 2 December 2009
  • ...dent. The president could not exercise any power&#x2014;whether appointing judges or commanding the state's militia&#x2014;without the consent of a majority ...ts on lawmakers, so did it look skeptically at the judiciary. Pennsylvania judges were not given independence. The legislature could revoke judgeships, which
    6 KB (890 words) - 16:14, 2 December 2009
  • ...n fact, more than half of its original uses can be attributed to just four judges: <span>[[Oliver|Oliver]]</span> <span>[[Wendell Holmes, Jr.|WENDELL HOLMES,
    5 KB (882 words) - 16:15, 2 December 2009
  • ...y before the election (M.S.A. § 203B.04[2]). Each county enlists election judges to deliver absentee ballots to hospitalized voters (M.S.A. § 203B.11[3]). The two state circuit judges who reviewed the issues decided that, despite irregularities, the ballots s
    15 KB (2,288 words) - 00:27, 7 January 2010
  • ...sions quickly to keep the proceedings moving on schedule. For this reason, judges are given wide latitude in making evidentiary rulings and will not be over- ...i, Michael A. 2002."Polygraph Evidence OK to Prove Probable Cause, Circuit Judges Say; No Abuse of Discretion in Relying on 'Lie Detector' for Limited Purpos
    5 KB (710 words) - 16:29, 11 December 2009
  • ...merican experience is that law books were scarce in the colonies, and many judges were laymen. The most rigid applications of technical formalities came duri
    4 KB (634 words) - 23:49, 3 February 2010
  • ...span>[[Rules Of Law|rules of law]]</span> is neither simple nor automatic. Judges have considerable latitude in interpreting the statutes or case law upon wh ...re of the Judicial Process'', argued that the law is evolutionary and that judges, by interpreting and applying it to specific sets of facts, actually fashio
    6 KB (853 words) - 01:54, 7 January 2010
  • ...istrative agencies, <span>[[Administrative Law|administrative law]]</span> judges (ALJs), who hear agency claims and disputes, are loath to overturn the lega
    20 KB (2,825 words) - 17:44, 14 December 2009
  • ... the various courts, and report the results four times a year to the chief judges of the circuits. This allows the federal courts to analyze and plan for the ... the courts, together with certain statistical data submitted to the chief judges of the circuits. This report also contains the director's recommendations o
    10 KB (1,496 words) - 17:54, 14 December 2009
  • ...ourts that approve these adoptions are located in metropolitan areas where judges may be more liberal than their rural counterparts.
    41 KB (6,418 words) - 22:09, 28 June 2011
  • Finally, judges, prosecutors, and other state officials have increasingly realized that pro
    10 KB (1,488 words) - 00:17, 25 February 2010
  • ...s, English judges were still biased by their ties with the Crown, and U.S. judges were often politically partisan. U.S. Supreme Court Chief Justice <span>[[J ...sitive to individual rights than are adversarial courts, and inquisitorial judges, who are government bureaucrats (rather than part of an independent judicia
    10 KB (1,491 words) - 21:15, 28 May 2014
  • ... government positions, including cabinet members, ambassadors, and federal judges. However, these powers are conditioned upon the advice and consent of the S
    2 KB (325 words) - 18:44, 11 December 2009
  • ...adopt advisory jury findings unless they are clearly erroneous while other judges consider the findings an additional piece of evidence to be weighed in deci
    3 KB (419 words) - 18:20, 4 February 2010
  • ...e sometimes authorized to take affidavits. Unless restricted by state law, judges may take affidavits involving controversies before them.
    7 KB (1,054 words) - 22:20, 23 February 2010
  • ...ired by law. Two quasi-judicial agencies, the Office of Administrative Law Judges and the Board of Contract Appeals, adjudicate cases and decide contract dis
    13 KB (1,795 words) - 20:50, 18 December 2009
  • ...n Great Britain and Germany. After three weeks of discussion, the panel of judges voted in favor the United States' position.
    5 KB (860 words) - 18:32, 11 December 2009
  • ...ecific guidelines to attaining this broad goal: instead of telling [[Judge|judges]] how and when to award alimony, most courts simply [[Grant|grant]] them br ...er than winning one after the divorce). Or the judge may award no alimony; judges are not required to award alimony.
    15 KB (2,410 words) - 22:09, 28 June 2011
  • ...t each is an alternative to full-blown litigation. Litigants, lawyers, and judges are constantly adapting existing ADR processes or devising new ones to meet State legislatures have similarly provided for ADR in many of their statutes. Judges in Florida, for example, possess authority to submit most types of cases to
    15 KB (2,368 words) - 21:22, 28 May 2014
  • ...umably not needed and were often restricted or prohibited from practicing. Judges were ordinary men who used unpolished methods of questioning to determine t ... secured a living as legal practitioners. It was also feared that lawyers, judges, and legislators would band together to control society, depriving the comm
    5 KB (736 words) - 18:33, 14 December 2009
  • ...ay the leading role in promoting competition and attacking monopolization: Judges would make decisions as cases arose, slowly developing a body of opinions t ...tics of all stripes jumped on this decision. Some feared that conservative judges would now gut the Sherman Act; others predicted a return to lax enforcement
    35 KB (5,271 words) - 23:59, 4 March 2010
  • ...8 U.S.C.A. § 44 [1995]). Appeals are heard and decided by panels of three judges that are selected randomly, by the circuit court en banc (in its entirety), ...n favor of the arguing party. During the arguments, the appellate judge or judges may interrupt with questions on particular issues or points of law.
    17 KB (2,738 words) - 18:35, 14 December 2009
  • ...lished, thus forming a body of law, known as precedent, that attorneys and judges can consult for guidance in resolving similar legal questions.
    7 KB (1,230 words) - 21:36, 28 May 2014
  • ...on-profit group founded in 1926. Significantly, arbitrators are freer than judges to make decisions, because they do not have to abide by the principle of ''
    13 KB (2,104 words) - 18:51, 24 February 2010
  • ...e|judge advocate]]</span> general. The plaintiffs claimed that because the judges could be removed at any time by the judge advocate general, they were biase
    36 KB (5,588 words) - 00:31, 13 July 2010
  • ...ed execution of mentally retarded inmates and which overturned cases where judges rather than juries had imposed the death penalty, Attorney General Ashcroft
    9 KB (1,390 words) - 22:46, 7 January 2010
  • ...force to remove persons who disturb other patrons. Court officers, such as judges, may order the removal of disruptive persons who interfere with their dutie
    10 KB (1,601 words) - 21:47, 2 September 2010
  • ...stion of proper punishment to the individuated consideration of sentencing judges or juries familiar with the particular offender and his or her crime. Chief
    7 KB (994 words) - 20:57, 3 March 2011
  • ...fession is self-governing. That is, it is largely regulated by lawyers and judges themselves rather than by the government or outside agencies. In particular Federal and state laws also define attorney misconduct and empower judges to discipline wayward attorneys. Rule 11 of the Federal Rules of Civil Proc
    16 KB (2,565 words) - 19:45, 14 December 2009
  • ...ible to circumvent or postpone the effect of the court's mandate." Federal judges rejected the bogus plans, however, and by late summer 1962, the state's pol
    9 KB (1,269 words) - 20:57, 3 March 2011
  • ... scholars and judges. Critics contend that it gives too much discretion to judges and amounts to a usurpation of the legislative function. They maintain that ..."the sounder approach&#x2014;the approach more consistent with our role as judges to decide each case on its individual merits&#x2014;is to apply [a] test in
    14 KB (2,193 words) - 16:46, 2 December 2009
  • ...itting in banc (or en banc), it means that a meeting or session of all the judges of a court is taking place. The usual purpose of sitting in banc is to hear
    381 B (72 words) - 16:47, 2 December 2009
  • ...convicted of <span>[[Domestic Violence|domestic violence]]</span>. Florida judges have been known to address prostitution by meting out a five-year banishmen
    9 KB (1,442 words) - 16:47, 2 December 2009
  • '''Judges and Trustees''' ... then refer the matters to the bankruptcy court unit and to the bankruptcy judges.
    24 KB (3,624 words) - 21:22, 30 August 2011
  • ...l rights lawyer, he confronted many difficult people and situations—from judges predisposed to ruling against his black clients to segregated public buildi
    13 KB (2,148 words) - 23:48, 30 December 2009
  • ...d of the judge or judges of a court. The seat of the court occupied by the judges.</i></p> ...To appear before the full bench means to appear before the entire group of judges of the court.</p>
    405 B (78 words) - 16:51, 2 December 2009
  • ... in order to attach or arrest a person. An order that a judge, or group of judges, issues directly to the police with the purpose of directing a person's arr
    774 B (140 words) - 23:13, 2 February 2010
  • ...hould not make decisions that cannot gain public support. He believed that judges should exercise care to avoid deciding constitutional issues if other groun
    5 KB (837 words) - 22:39, 9 December 2009
  • ...d gender diversity on the bench. During her tenure, more than one-thousand judges were appointed who were either persons of color or female. In addition, she ...tices Cruz Reynoso and Joseph Grodin from the court. They became the first judges in state history to be removed from office in a retention election. A reten
    5 KB (877 words) - 16:54, 2 December 2009
  • ...sed to describe basic principles of law that are accepted by a majority of judges in most states.</i></p>
    314 B (55 words) - 16:55, 2 December 2009
  • .... The <i>Commentaries</i> were the primary reference tools for lawyers and judges until the nineteenth century because the appellate courts in America did no
    3 KB (474 words) - 16:56, 2 December 2009
  • ...ion plan was not a judicial duty. He ruled that the designation of circuit judges as administrators violated the <span>[[Separation Of Powers|separation-of-p
    5 KB (749 words) - 23:31, 30 December 2009
  • ...d why he or she is deserving of a pardon and presents character witnesses. Judges, prosecutors, and victims may also testify.</p>
    4 KB (700 words) - 16:57, 2 December 2009
  • ...and <span>[[Samuel Chase|Samuel Chase]]</span>, two federal district court judges who had ties to the rival <span>[[Federalist Party|Federalist Party]]</span
    4 KB (660 words) - 17:02, 2 December 2009
  • ...>, and <i>The United States: A Christian Nation.</i> He felt strongly that judges have a moral obligation to use their lofty position to lead rather than sim
    6 KB (948 words) - 17:02, 2 December 2009
  • ...reyer has argued that the guidelines have built-in flexibility that allows judges to influence the Sentencing Commission in future revisions.
    15 KB (2,296 words) - 20:09, 6 August 2010
  • ...ividing the circuit, but there was equally strong opinion that adding more judges would make the circuit even more unmanageable.</p> ... chief judge, Browning was instrumental in convincing Congress to give the judges of the Ninth Circuit an opportunity to demonstrate that a large circuit wit
    7 KB (1,173 words) - 17:06, 2 December 2009
  • ...le with a criminal conviction. In giving the reasonable doubt instruction, judges regularly remind jurors that a criminal conviction imposes a variety of har
    4 KB (673 words) - 23:49, 13 December 2009
  • ...ion to judicial activism (a philosophy of judicial decision-making whereby judges allow their personal views about public policy, among other factors, to gui ...ng professional court administrators, implemented continuing education for judges, and improved coordination between federal and state courts. In addition, h
    9 KB (1,323 words) - 22:45, 6 January 2010
  • ...r, stability, and prosperity have echoed through the arguments of American judges and statesmen.</p>
    9 KB (1,477 words) - 17:07, 2 December 2009
  • ...l candidate, which overturned a decision made by the predominantly liberal judges on the Florida Supreme Court in favor of the Democratic Party's presidentia
    16 KB (2,600 words) - 20:59, 3 March 2011
  • ...Court had overstepped its bounds and that state legislatures were the best judges of what was best for their citizens. In the 1932 decision <span>[[Powell v.
    17 KB (2,692 words) - 17:11, 2 December 2009
  • ...iment in 1991 that permitted camera coverage of federal civil trials. Most judges who participated in the experiment, which involved</p><p>six trial court di <p>"Cameras in the Courtroom: Should Judges Permit High-Profile Trials to Be Televised?" 1995. <i>American Bar Associat
    11 KB (1,786 words) - 17:11, 2 December 2009
  • ...nited States in order to give new district judges, magistrates, bankruptcy judges, clerks of court, <span>[[Probation|probation]]</span> officers, and other
    10 KB (1,653 words) - 18:40, 7 January 2010
  • ... rulings) is published in <i>Roman Replies</i> and has precedential value. Judges may also request assistance from the <span>[[Canon Law Society Of America|c
    7 KB (1,127 words) - 17:12, 2 December 2009
  • ...s were the model for secular court systems and operate similarly. Tribunal judges decide cases such as marriage <span>[[Annulments|annulments]]</span> based
    3 KB (445 words) - 23:09, 10 December 2009
  • ...r Edward Coke|Sir Edward Coke]]</span> wrote in 1584, "[T]he office of all judges is always to make such construction as shall suppress the mischief, advance <p>Judges face different challenges when interpreting the terms of a contract. As a r
    9 KB (1,585 words) - 17:12, 2 December 2009
  • ...l examine prevailing opinions among state legislatures, sentencing juries, judges, scholars, the American public, and the international community to determin
    19 KB (2,999 words) - 23:18, 19 February 2010
  • ...urt of Appeals of the State of New York'', published in 1903. In addition, judges often appointed him to act as referee in complicated matters of commercial
    11 KB (1,723 words) - 22:53, 7 January 2010
  • ...on southern courts, typically for personal gain. "Carpetbag" refers to the judges's practice of carrying their possessions with them in carpetbags.</i></p> ...in the South. A large number of these judges were known as "carpetbagging" judges because they were northerners who had relocated to the South for personal g
    2 KB (320 words) - 17:13, 2 December 2009
  • ...addition, a case might contain concurring and dissenting opinions of other judges.</p>
    1 KB (186 words) - 17:15, 2 December 2009
  • ...do not adhere, to law developed in previous cases. Students also learn how judges have the discretion to create law by construing statutes or constitutions.<
    8 KB (1,234 words) - 22:31, 16 August 2010
  • ...technical assistance to the mayor's and district attorney's offices and to judges and other officials in Philadelphia. The center has also worked with the Ne
    15 KB (2,279 words) - 23:02, 10 December 2009
  • ...00. "Questioning Certiorari: Some Reflections Seventy-Five Years After the Judges' Bill." <i>Columbia Law Review</i> 100 (November): 1643&#x2013;1738.</p>
    4 KB (654 words) - 19:24, 2 December 2009
  • ...story of <span>[[Libel|libel]]</span> law and free speech, particularly as judges across the United States began making <span>[[Arbitrary|arbitrary]]</span>
    14 KB (2,345 words) - 23:35, 30 December 2009
  • ...[[Case|case]]. In fact, state and [[Federal|federal]] court rules prohibit judges and jurors from being swayed by, or even taking into consideration, [[Extra ...arties|parties]] to civil and criminal [[Litigation|litigation]] depend on judges and juries to impartially weigh the evidence, and only the evidence, that i
    7 KB (1,046 words) - 00:18, 11 September 2010
  • ...pan> was governor of California. Other chief justices came to the Court as judges from lower federal and state courts or practiced law prior to their appoint
    11 KB (1,427 words) - 18:01, 31 December 2009
  • ...agree. Noncustodial parents of both genders have long charged that [[Judge|judges']] decision making is <span>[[Arbitrary|arbitrary]]</span> and that it does ...nt, and it attributed them in many cases to personal gender biases held by judges.
    21 KB (3,291 words) - 22:09, 28 June 2011
  • ...t) exists, and what disparities in parents' incomes exist. In many states, judges must prove in writing that an exception to the guidelines serves the child' ..., courts are allowed to use many criteria in setting an award amount. Some judges consider the needs of subsequent children when obligors (payers) remarry an
    22 KB (3,331 words) - 22:09, 28 June 2011
  • ...al Society (CLS), founded in 1961, is a nonprofit organization of lawyers, judges, law professors, and law students. The group's missions are to promote high
    6 KB (958 words) - 19:27, 2 December 2009

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