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  • ... their judicial appointments. However, the skirmish involving the midnight judges had a much broader significance: it belonged to a fight that had begun shor ...nse of the states. The act added six new federal circuits with sixteen new judges. As a final measure, they also added dozens of new justices of the peace to
    6 KB (966 words) - 15:47, 2 December 2009
  • ...on southern courts, typically for personal gain. "Carpetbag" refers to the judges's practice of carrying their possessions with them in carpetbags.</i></p> ...in the South. A large number of these judges were known as "carpetbagging" judges because they were northerners who had relocated to the South for personal g
    2 KB (320 words) - 17:13, 2 December 2009

Page text matches

  • ...nd during the latter part of the common-law era (about the year 1600) when judges began to hold that an act alone could not create criminal liability unless
    2 KB (359 words) - 15:46, 2 December 2009
  • ...ay, actions against <span>[[Administrative Law|administrative law]]</span> judges, charges of merit-system violations, and prohibited personnel practices, in
    5 KB (698 words) - 15:47, 2 December 2009
  • ... their judicial appointments. However, the skirmish involving the midnight judges had a much broader significance: it belonged to a fight that had begun shor ...nse of the states. The act added six new federal circuits with sixteen new judges. As a final measure, they also added dozens of new justices of the peace to
    6 KB (966 words) - 15:47, 2 December 2009
  • ...litary judge's role is similar to that of a civilian trial judge. Military judges do not determine penalties and may only instruct the members of the court, ...udge Advocate General]]</span>&nbsp;of the appropriate service branch. CCA judges do not have tenure or fixed terms. They serve at the pleasure of the judge
    35 KB (5,501 words) - 17:05, 30 April 2010
  • ...liam O. Douglas|William O. Douglas]]</span> wrote: "I do not think we, the judges, were ever given the constitutional power to make definitions of obscenity.
    8 KB (1,290 words) - 21:18, 3 March 2011
  • ... law, spending time discussing legal issues with his father and with other judges and attorneys who were family friends. As a result, after two years at Yale
    4 KB (696 words) - 15:50, 2 December 2009
  • <p>The ALI was founded in 1923 by a group of American judges, lawyers, and law professors. Its goal was to resolve uncertainty and compl
    3 KB (424 words) - 15:50, 2 December 2009
  • <p>Members of the American Law Institute (ALI), a group of judges, lawyers, and legal scholars whose purpose is to clarify and improve the la <p>In addition, the MPC's influence is felt in the courts, where judges often rely on the code when handling substantive criminal law decisions. It
    4 KB (683 words) - 15:50, 2 December 2009
  • ...s and students argue them before professors or other lawyers, who serve as judges. Hypothetical cases often address matters of current political and constitu ...five to ten minutes, to convince the panel. As with real appellate courts, judges on the panel are free to interrupt the student advocate frequently and at a
    5 KB (839 words) - 15:51, 2 December 2009
  • ...atural Law|natural law]]</span> <i>of constant values and rules, and which judges all persons equally, irrespective of individual circumstances or cultural d
    3 KB (459 words) - 15:51, 2 December 2009
  • ...glish tradition. According to Young, the application of common law allowed judges too much latitude to impose standards that did not comport with public will .... He attempted to blunt their impact by urging the legislature to prohibit judges from using common-law precedent in Utah. On January 14, 1854, the legislatu
    8 KB (1,308 words) - 15:51, 2 December 2009
  • ...ty's case that justice cannot be served—often are made orally. Sometimes judges themselves take action on
    7 KB (1,100 words) - 20:50, 23 February 2010
  • ...ment personnel often consider potential motives in detecting perpetrators. Judges may consider the motives of a convicted defendant at sentencing and either
    4 KB (603 words) - 18:55, 24 February 2010
  • ...ial discovery" in advance of trial. The panel is composed of seven federal judges based throughout the United States, who have been appointed by the chief ju ... have been employed to deal with complex litigation. States have appointed judges to oversee product liability cases involving products such as asbestos, bre
    4 KB (689 words) - 23:37, 5 February 2010
  • ... Supreme Court retirements would lead President Bush to appoint a judge or judges who might vote to reverse <i>Roe v. Wade</i>, given the opportunity.</p>
    4 KB (683 words) - 15:56, 2 December 2009
  • ...<span>[[Human Rights|human rights]]</span> in the state of nature, federal judges have identified the liberties protected by the Due Process Clauses through
    26 KB (3,936 words) - 21:59, 8 January 2010
  • ...om publishing anything that did not conform to the good taste of Minnesota judges. The Minnesota Supreme Court upheld the law and the order against Near, pav
    8 KB (1,229 words) - 21:18, 3 March 2011
  • ...o was deprived of unabridged <span>[[Veto|veto]]</span> power, because the judges of the Council of Revision could overrule him.</p>
    7 KB (1,118 words) - 15:58, 2 December 2009
  • ...ion as states. A government composed of a governor, a secretary, and three judges appointed by Congress was established in the region north of the Ohio River
    3 KB (400 words) - 16:01, 2 December 2009
  • ...bers from the district, to forward recommendations to her. All five of the judges Norton ultimately recommended to the president had been active in D.C. lega ... of the city's budget, and for the right of D.C. residents to choose local judges.</p>
    7 KB (1,219 words) - 16:01, 2 December 2009
  • ...appointed or elected in a manner similar to the election or appointment of judges. However, as trade with Europe began, the demand for notaries increased bec
    9 KB (1,467 words) - 16:01, 2 December 2009
  • ...ion camp commandants who ordered the extermination of their prisoners, and judges who upheld Nazi practices.</p> ...shed the International Military Tribunal (IMT), which was a panel of eight judges, two named by each of the four Allied powers. One judge from each country a
    28 KB (4,372 words) - 16:02, 2 December 2009
  • ... the parties in order to recognize the existence of a contract, or whether judges were required to view the external acts of the parties and then determine, ...s and early 1900s adhered to the objective theory of contract. Among these judges and scholars were <span>[[Christopher Columbus Langdell|Christopher Columbu
    5 KB (916 words) - 16:03, 2 December 2009
  • This test permitted judges to look at objectionable words or passages without regard for the work as a
    16 KB (2,426 words) - 17:19, 6 April 2010
  • ...in Washington, D.C. There are also three regional offices where commission judges are stationed.</p>
    7 KB (1,076 words) - 16:04, 2 December 2009
  • ...icle"><p><i>An all-inclusive term for any type of court employee including judges, clerks, sheriffs, marshals, bailiffs, and constables.</i></p>
    278 B (46 words) - 16:04, 2 December 2009
  • ...ersons accused of small crimes. When these measures proved unsatisfactory, judges began calling upon groups of people in the community to make decisions. As
    3 KB (594 words) - 16:07, 2 December 2009
  • ...r, lasting until the sixteenth century. For a long period of time, English judges were selected only from the order.</p> ...inent legal scholarship and leadership among law students, law professors, judges, and practitioners.</p>
    3 KB (420 words) - 16:07, 2 December 2009
  • <div type="article"><p><i>The theory of interpretation by which judges attempt to ascertain the meaning of a particular provision of a state or fe ...riginalism, or intentionalism, the theory of original intent is applied by judges when they are asked to exercise the power of <span>[[Judicial Review|judici
    11 KB (1,756 words) - 16:07, 2 December 2009
  • ... in a particular court or for the trial of a designated action. A group of judges of a lesser number than the entire court convened to decide a case, such as
    740 B (131 words) - 16:10, 2 December 2009
  • ...any, New York, on November 8, 1838, into a family of prominent lawyers and judges. He attended private schools and studied abroad as a young man. He read the
    5 KB (747 words) - 16:13, 2 December 2009
  • ...dent. The president could not exercise any power&#x2014;whether appointing judges or commanding the state's militia&#x2014;without the consent of a majority ...ts on lawmakers, so did it look skeptically at the judiciary. Pennsylvania judges were not given independence. The legislature could revoke judgeships, which
    6 KB (890 words) - 16:14, 2 December 2009
  • ...n fact, more than half of its original uses can be attributed to just four judges: <span>[[Oliver|Oliver]]</span> <span>[[Wendell Holmes, Jr.|WENDELL HOLMES,
    5 KB (882 words) - 16:15, 2 December 2009
  • ...y before the election (M.S.A. § 203B.04[2]). Each county enlists election judges to deliver absentee ballots to hospitalized voters (M.S.A. § 203B.11[3]). The two state circuit judges who reviewed the issues decided that, despite irregularities, the ballots s
    15 KB (2,288 words) - 00:27, 7 January 2010
  • ...sions quickly to keep the proceedings moving on schedule. For this reason, judges are given wide latitude in making evidentiary rulings and will not be over- ...i, Michael A. 2002."Polygraph Evidence OK to Prove Probable Cause, Circuit Judges Say; No Abuse of Discretion in Relying on 'Lie Detector' for Limited Purpos
    5 KB (710 words) - 16:29, 11 December 2009
  • ...merican experience is that law books were scarce in the colonies, and many judges were laymen. The most rigid applications of technical formalities came duri
    4 KB (634 words) - 23:49, 3 February 2010
  • ...span>[[Rules Of Law|rules of law]]</span> is neither simple nor automatic. Judges have considerable latitude in interpreting the statutes or case law upon wh ...re of the Judicial Process'', argued that the law is evolutionary and that judges, by interpreting and applying it to specific sets of facts, actually fashio
    6 KB (853 words) - 01:54, 7 January 2010
  • ...istrative agencies, <span>[[Administrative Law|administrative law]]</span> judges (ALJs), who hear agency claims and disputes, are loath to overturn the lega
    20 KB (2,825 words) - 17:44, 14 December 2009
  • ... the various courts, and report the results four times a year to the chief judges of the circuits. This allows the federal courts to analyze and plan for the ... the courts, together with certain statistical data submitted to the chief judges of the circuits. This report also contains the director's recommendations o
    10 KB (1,496 words) - 17:54, 14 December 2009
  • ...ourts that approve these adoptions are located in metropolitan areas where judges may be more liberal than their rural counterparts.
    41 KB (6,418 words) - 22:09, 28 June 2011
  • Finally, judges, prosecutors, and other state officials have increasingly realized that pro
    10 KB (1,488 words) - 00:17, 25 February 2010
  • ...s, English judges were still biased by their ties with the Crown, and U.S. judges were often politically partisan. U.S. Supreme Court Chief Justice <span>[[J ...sitive to individual rights than are adversarial courts, and inquisitorial judges, who are government bureaucrats (rather than part of an independent judicia
    10 KB (1,491 words) - 21:15, 28 May 2014
  • ... government positions, including cabinet members, ambassadors, and federal judges. However, these powers are conditioned upon the advice and consent of the S
    2 KB (325 words) - 18:44, 11 December 2009
  • ...adopt advisory jury findings unless they are clearly erroneous while other judges consider the findings an additional piece of evidence to be weighed in deci
    3 KB (419 words) - 18:20, 4 February 2010
  • ...e sometimes authorized to take affidavits. Unless restricted by state law, judges may take affidavits involving controversies before them.
    7 KB (1,054 words) - 22:20, 23 February 2010
  • ...ired by law. Two quasi-judicial agencies, the Office of Administrative Law Judges and the Board of Contract Appeals, adjudicate cases and decide contract dis
    13 KB (1,795 words) - 20:50, 18 December 2009
  • ...n Great Britain and Germany. After three weeks of discussion, the panel of judges voted in favor the United States' position.
    5 KB (860 words) - 18:32, 11 December 2009
  • ...ecific guidelines to attaining this broad goal: instead of telling [[Judge|judges]] how and when to award alimony, most courts simply [[Grant|grant]] them br ...er than winning one after the divorce). Or the judge may award no alimony; judges are not required to award alimony.
    15 KB (2,410 words) - 22:09, 28 June 2011
  • ...t each is an alternative to full-blown litigation. Litigants, lawyers, and judges are constantly adapting existing ADR processes or devising new ones to meet State legislatures have similarly provided for ADR in many of their statutes. Judges in Florida, for example, possess authority to submit most types of cases to
    15 KB (2,368 words) - 21:22, 28 May 2014
  • ...umably not needed and were often restricted or prohibited from practicing. Judges were ordinary men who used unpolished methods of questioning to determine t ... secured a living as legal practitioners. It was also feared that lawyers, judges, and legislators would band together to control society, depriving the comm
    5 KB (736 words) - 18:33, 14 December 2009
  • ...ay the leading role in promoting competition and attacking monopolization: Judges would make decisions as cases arose, slowly developing a body of opinions t ...tics of all stripes jumped on this decision. Some feared that conservative judges would now gut the Sherman Act; others predicted a return to lax enforcement
    35 KB (5,271 words) - 23:59, 4 March 2010
  • ...8 U.S.C.A. § 44 [1995]). Appeals are heard and decided by panels of three judges that are selected randomly, by the circuit court en banc (in its entirety), ...n favor of the arguing party. During the arguments, the appellate judge or judges may interrupt with questions on particular issues or points of law.
    17 KB (2,738 words) - 18:35, 14 December 2009
  • ...lished, thus forming a body of law, known as precedent, that attorneys and judges can consult for guidance in resolving similar legal questions.
    7 KB (1,230 words) - 21:36, 28 May 2014
  • ...on-profit group founded in 1926. Significantly, arbitrators are freer than judges to make decisions, because they do not have to abide by the principle of ''
    13 KB (2,104 words) - 18:51, 24 February 2010
  • ...e|judge advocate]]</span> general. The plaintiffs claimed that because the judges could be removed at any time by the judge advocate general, they were biase
    36 KB (5,588 words) - 00:31, 13 July 2010
  • ...ed execution of mentally retarded inmates and which overturned cases where judges rather than juries had imposed the death penalty, Attorney General Ashcroft
    9 KB (1,390 words) - 22:46, 7 January 2010
  • ...force to remove persons who disturb other patrons. Court officers, such as judges, may order the removal of disruptive persons who interfere with their dutie
    10 KB (1,601 words) - 21:47, 2 September 2010
  • ...stion of proper punishment to the individuated consideration of sentencing judges or juries familiar with the particular offender and his or her crime. Chief
    7 KB (994 words) - 20:57, 3 March 2011
  • ...fession is self-governing. That is, it is largely regulated by lawyers and judges themselves rather than by the government or outside agencies. In particular Federal and state laws also define attorney misconduct and empower judges to discipline wayward attorneys. Rule 11 of the Federal Rules of Civil Proc
    16 KB (2,565 words) - 19:45, 14 December 2009
  • ...ible to circumvent or postpone the effect of the court's mandate." Federal judges rejected the bogus plans, however, and by late summer 1962, the state's pol
    9 KB (1,269 words) - 20:57, 3 March 2011
  • ... scholars and judges. Critics contend that it gives too much discretion to judges and amounts to a usurpation of the legislative function. They maintain that ..."the sounder approach&#x2014;the approach more consistent with our role as judges to decide each case on its individual merits&#x2014;is to apply [a] test in
    14 KB (2,193 words) - 16:46, 2 December 2009
  • ...itting in banc (or en banc), it means that a meeting or session of all the judges of a court is taking place. The usual purpose of sitting in banc is to hear
    381 B (72 words) - 16:47, 2 December 2009
  • ...convicted of <span>[[Domestic Violence|domestic violence]]</span>. Florida judges have been known to address prostitution by meting out a five-year banishmen
    9 KB (1,442 words) - 16:47, 2 December 2009
  • '''Judges and Trustees''' ... then refer the matters to the bankruptcy court unit and to the bankruptcy judges.
    24 KB (3,624 words) - 21:22, 30 August 2011
  • ...l rights lawyer, he confronted many difficult people and situations—from judges predisposed to ruling against his black clients to segregated public buildi
    13 KB (2,148 words) - 23:48, 30 December 2009
  • ...d of the judge or judges of a court. The seat of the court occupied by the judges.</i></p> ...To appear before the full bench means to appear before the entire group of judges of the court.</p>
    405 B (78 words) - 16:51, 2 December 2009
  • ... in order to attach or arrest a person. An order that a judge, or group of judges, issues directly to the police with the purpose of directing a person's arr
    774 B (140 words) - 23:13, 2 February 2010
  • ...hould not make decisions that cannot gain public support. He believed that judges should exercise care to avoid deciding constitutional issues if other groun
    5 KB (837 words) - 22:39, 9 December 2009
  • ...d gender diversity on the bench. During her tenure, more than one-thousand judges were appointed who were either persons of color or female. In addition, she ...tices Cruz Reynoso and Joseph Grodin from the court. They became the first judges in state history to be removed from office in a retention election. A reten
    5 KB (877 words) - 16:54, 2 December 2009
  • ...sed to describe basic principles of law that are accepted by a majority of judges in most states.</i></p>
    314 B (55 words) - 16:55, 2 December 2009
  • .... The <i>Commentaries</i> were the primary reference tools for lawyers and judges until the nineteenth century because the appellate courts in America did no
    3 KB (474 words) - 16:56, 2 December 2009
  • ...ion plan was not a judicial duty. He ruled that the designation of circuit judges as administrators violated the <span>[[Separation Of Powers|separation-of-p
    5 KB (749 words) - 23:31, 30 December 2009
  • ...d why he or she is deserving of a pardon and presents character witnesses. Judges, prosecutors, and victims may also testify.</p>
    4 KB (700 words) - 16:57, 2 December 2009
  • ...and <span>[[Samuel Chase|Samuel Chase]]</span>, two federal district court judges who had ties to the rival <span>[[Federalist Party|Federalist Party]]</span
    4 KB (660 words) - 17:02, 2 December 2009
  • ...>, and <i>The United States: A Christian Nation.</i> He felt strongly that judges have a moral obligation to use their lofty position to lead rather than sim
    6 KB (948 words) - 17:02, 2 December 2009
  • ...reyer has argued that the guidelines have built-in flexibility that allows judges to influence the Sentencing Commission in future revisions.
    15 KB (2,296 words) - 20:09, 6 August 2010
  • ...ividing the circuit, but there was equally strong opinion that adding more judges would make the circuit even more unmanageable.</p> ... chief judge, Browning was instrumental in convincing Congress to give the judges of the Ninth Circuit an opportunity to demonstrate that a large circuit wit
    7 KB (1,173 words) - 17:06, 2 December 2009
  • ...le with a criminal conviction. In giving the reasonable doubt instruction, judges regularly remind jurors that a criminal conviction imposes a variety of har
    4 KB (673 words) - 23:49, 13 December 2009
  • ...ion to judicial activism (a philosophy of judicial decision-making whereby judges allow their personal views about public policy, among other factors, to gui ...ng professional court administrators, implemented continuing education for judges, and improved coordination between federal and state courts. In addition, h
    9 KB (1,323 words) - 22:45, 6 January 2010
  • ...r, stability, and prosperity have echoed through the arguments of American judges and statesmen.</p>
    9 KB (1,477 words) - 17:07, 2 December 2009
  • ...l candidate, which overturned a decision made by the predominantly liberal judges on the Florida Supreme Court in favor of the Democratic Party's presidentia
    16 KB (2,600 words) - 20:59, 3 March 2011
  • ...Court had overstepped its bounds and that state legislatures were the best judges of what was best for their citizens. In the 1932 decision <span>[[Powell v.
    17 KB (2,692 words) - 17:11, 2 December 2009
  • ...iment in 1991 that permitted camera coverage of federal civil trials. Most judges who participated in the experiment, which involved</p><p>six trial court di <p>"Cameras in the Courtroom: Should Judges Permit High-Profile Trials to Be Televised?" 1995. <i>American Bar Associat
    11 KB (1,786 words) - 17:11, 2 December 2009
  • ...nited States in order to give new district judges, magistrates, bankruptcy judges, clerks of court, <span>[[Probation|probation]]</span> officers, and other
    10 KB (1,653 words) - 18:40, 7 January 2010
  • ... rulings) is published in <i>Roman Replies</i> and has precedential value. Judges may also request assistance from the <span>[[Canon Law Society Of America|c
    7 KB (1,127 words) - 17:12, 2 December 2009
  • ...s were the model for secular court systems and operate similarly. Tribunal judges decide cases such as marriage <span>[[Annulments|annulments]]</span> based
    3 KB (445 words) - 23:09, 10 December 2009
  • ...r Edward Coke|Sir Edward Coke]]</span> wrote in 1584, "[T]he office of all judges is always to make such construction as shall suppress the mischief, advance <p>Judges face different challenges when interpreting the terms of a contract. As a r
    9 KB (1,585 words) - 17:12, 2 December 2009
  • ...l examine prevailing opinions among state legislatures, sentencing juries, judges, scholars, the American public, and the international community to determin
    19 KB (2,999 words) - 23:18, 19 February 2010
  • ...urt of Appeals of the State of New York'', published in 1903. In addition, judges often appointed him to act as referee in complicated matters of commercial
    11 KB (1,723 words) - 22:53, 7 January 2010
  • ...on southern courts, typically for personal gain. "Carpetbag" refers to the judges's practice of carrying their possessions with them in carpetbags.</i></p> ...in the South. A large number of these judges were known as "carpetbagging" judges because they were northerners who had relocated to the South for personal g
    2 KB (320 words) - 17:13, 2 December 2009
  • ...addition, a case might contain concurring and dissenting opinions of other judges.</p>
    1 KB (186 words) - 17:15, 2 December 2009
  • ...do not adhere, to law developed in previous cases. Students also learn how judges have the discretion to create law by construing statutes or constitutions.<
    8 KB (1,234 words) - 22:31, 16 August 2010
  • ...technical assistance to the mayor's and district attorney's offices and to judges and other officials in Philadelphia. The center has also worked with the Ne
    15 KB (2,279 words) - 23:02, 10 December 2009
  • ...00. "Questioning Certiorari: Some Reflections Seventy-Five Years After the Judges' Bill." <i>Columbia Law Review</i> 100 (November): 1643&#x2013;1738.</p>
    4 KB (654 words) - 19:24, 2 December 2009
  • ...story of <span>[[Libel|libel]]</span> law and free speech, particularly as judges across the United States began making <span>[[Arbitrary|arbitrary]]</span>
    14 KB (2,345 words) - 23:35, 30 December 2009
  • ...[[Case|case]]. In fact, state and [[Federal|federal]] court rules prohibit judges and jurors from being swayed by, or even taking into consideration, [[Extra ...arties|parties]] to civil and criminal [[Litigation|litigation]] depend on judges and juries to impartially weigh the evidence, and only the evidence, that i
    7 KB (1,046 words) - 00:18, 11 September 2010
  • ...pan> was governor of California. Other chief justices came to the Court as judges from lower federal and state courts or practiced law prior to their appoint
    11 KB (1,427 words) - 18:01, 31 December 2009
  • ...agree. Noncustodial parents of both genders have long charged that [[Judge|judges']] decision making is <span>[[Arbitrary|arbitrary]]</span> and that it does ...nt, and it attributed them in many cases to personal gender biases held by judges.
    21 KB (3,291 words) - 22:09, 28 June 2011
  • ...t) exists, and what disparities in parents' incomes exist. In many states, judges must prove in writing that an exception to the guidelines serves the child' ..., courts are allowed to use many criteria in setting an award amount. Some judges consider the needs of subsequent children when obligors (payers) remarry an
    22 KB (3,331 words) - 22:09, 28 June 2011
  • ...al Society (CLS), founded in 1961, is a nonprofit organization of lawyers, judges, law professors, and law students. The group's missions are to promote high
    6 KB (958 words) - 19:27, 2 December 2009
  • <p>A citator is a guide published primarily for use by judges and lawyers when they are in the process of preparing such papers as judici
    978 B (170 words) - 19:28, 2 December 2009
  • <p>Noorani, A.G. 2002. <i>Citizens' Rights, Judges and State Accountability.</i> New York: Oxford Univ. Press.</p>
    17 KB (2,837 words) - 00:08, 13 July 2010
  • ... theaters that show sexually explicit movies by pressuring politicians and judges into enforcing <span>[[Obscenity|obscenity]]</span> laws.</p> ...utor of sexually explicit films, magazines, and books. A number of federal judges and civil liberties organizations denounced the multidistrict tactic as a f
    6 KB (854 words) - 19:28, 2 December 2009
  • ...hat custom may not abrogate or conflict with legislation. Hence, Louisiana judges do not make law with their decisions; rather, the code charges them with in ...ce constante</i>, or settled <span>[[Jurisprudence|jurisprudence]]</span>, judges are expected to follow a series of decisions that agree on the interpretati
    8 KB (1,337 words) - 22:42, 21 June 2010
  • ...rected verdict. A reversal of judgment usually occurs only in jury trials; judges generally are not inclined to reverse their own decisions. ...il litigation. The report was then considered by the federal circuit court judges in forming the Civil Justice Expense and Delay Reduction Plan.
    27 KB (4,454 words) - 22:23, 28 May 2014
  • ...ice|nternational Court of Justice]]</span> at The Hague, and persuaded its judges to rule in favor of the United States and denounce the Iranian capture of t
    7 KB (957 words) - 23:12, 10 December 2009
  • ...n the use of confessions obtained illegally, employed a five-part test for judges to decide whether a confession was voluntary (18 U.S.C.A. &#xA7; 3501[b]).
    12 KB (1,967 words) - 19:29, 2 December 2009
  • ...ument is left to the discretion of the judge, who may impose a time limit. Judges can also sustain objections by the opposing side if the scope of the rebutt
    5 KB (845 words) - 19:40, 3 February 2010
  • <div type="article"><p><i>A collection of rules governing the conduct of judges while they serve in their professional capacity.</i></p> ...t and use violations of its rules as the basis for punitive action against judges.</p>
    14 KB (2,293 words) - 19:35, 2 December 2009
  • ...to live by rules that had been enacted by elected legislators, rather than judges, and that the common law system was too vast and obtuse for the lay public. ... would reflect the will of the people more than would law as determined by judges. In 1804, France enacted the Code Civil, a set of rules that were designed
    10 KB (1,589 words) - 18:25, 31 December 2009
  • ...the right friends: newspaper columnists, publishing magnates, politicians, judges, and fellow lawyers. He was as feared for his ability to get headlines publ
    6 KB (897 words) - 22:49, 2 February 2010
  • ...iformity is desirable. The organization consists of more than 300 lawyers, judges, and law professors, each selected by the state governments. The acts appro
    2 KB (269 words) - 19:38, 2 December 2009
  • ...r the doctrine of <span>[[Stare Decisis|stare decisis]]</span>, common-law judges are obliged to adhere to previously decided cases, or precedents, where the .../span> (previously undetermined legal issue). The common-law system allows judges to look to other jurisdictions or to draw upon past or present judicial exp
    6 KB (949 words) - 19:40, 2 December 2009
  • ...pinion or belief about a legal issue makes that opinion or belief the law. Judges have pointed out that universal opinion may also be universal error. Until
    550 B (93 words) - 19:41, 2 December 2009
  • ''Technology that allows lawyers and judges to bypass the traditional law library and locate statutes, court cases, and Most judges, lawyers, and law librarians continue to rely on the traditional fee-based
    8 KB (1,249 words) - 22:55, 2 August 2010
  • ... immunity]]</span> and permitted attorneys to collect awards against state judges, and it began an ongoing lobbying effort aimed at having Congress restore j <p>"Feds, State Judges in Showdown." 1994. <i>National Law Journal</i> (August 15).</p>
    7 KB (1,141 words) - 19:48, 2 December 2009
  • ...they deemed trustworthy. To determine the trustworthiness of a confession, judges considered the circumstances surrounding it, whether a threat or promise co
    18 KB (2,728 words) - 19:36, 7 January 2010
  • ...remacy Clause|Supremacy Clause]]</span>. Article VI also requires that all judges in every state be subject to the provisions of the Constitution, that all s
    20 KB (3,122 words) - 23:53, 4 August 2010
  • ...nt must also seek senatorial approval when appointing ambassadors; federal judges, including Supreme Court justices; and other public ministers. ... for judges to evaluate the constitutionality of a particular act, because judges are not elected and are therefore independent from the political considerat
    47 KB (7,211 words) - 00:08, 31 December 2009
  • ...ave developed in a piecemeal fashion over time and give wide discretion to judges and legislative leaders in determining both what constitutes contempt and h ...egal scholars to argue that the contempt power gives too much authority to judges. Earl C. Dudley, University of Virginia law professor, wrote that in the co
    17 KB (2,632 words) - 23:40, 14 March 2011
  • ...l education is to maintain or sharpen the skills of licensed attorneys and judges. Accredited courses examine new areas of the law or review basic practice a ...credits for attending lectures and seminars taught by respected attorneys, judges, and scholars. The courses cover a variety of topics involving virtually al
    4 KB (608 words) - 22:15, 13 August 2010
  • <p>A <i>judicial convention</i> is an assembly of judges of the superior courts (courts of general jurisdiction), empowered in some
    2 KB (302 words) - 21:06, 22 May 2010
  • ...lty that would be committed to teaching and writing, instead of relying on judges and practicing lawyers who taught only part-time and thus were not always a
    7 KB (1,142 words) - 22:30, 10 December 2009
  • ...ed States. Corwin was acutely aware of his important role, noting that "if judges make law, so do commentators."
    5 KB (704 words) - 18:53, 7 January 2010
  • ...achusetts, which is its legislature. The words</i> court, judge, <i>or</i> judges, <i>when used in laws, are often synonymous. A kangaroo court is a mock leg ...f 1982 (28 U.S.C.A. &#xA7; 1 note). Each court of appeals has four or more judges who sit either as panels of three or as a whole to review the decisions of
    8 KB (1,437 words) - 20:02, 2 December 2009
  • <p>A go-between for judges, attorneys, and clients, the court administrator essentially runs the court ...ke those in past decades, nearly all administrators today are appointed by judges. Judicial appointment has helped take politics out of this powerful positio
    2 KB (332 words) - 20:02, 2 December 2009
  • ...ry trial judges who are quite similar to U.S. district court judges. These judges are commissioned officers selected by judge advocates according to rules es ...vernment must provide defendants with expert witnesses at its own expense; judges may delay or dismiss trials if prosecutors fail to do so. The military judg
    8 KB (1,233 words) - 23:08, 2 February 2010
  • ...lving significant constitutional questions are heard en banc, with all the judges serving on the court present to decide the case by a majority vote. In 1982
    4 KB (648 words) - 20:02, 2 December 2009
  • ...case and favorable court opinions and to distinguish unfavorable opinions. Judges study relevant opinions in rendering their decisions.</p> ...ing opinion. Conversely, a dissenting opinion may be written by a judge or judges who disagree with the decision of the court. Neither a concurrence nor a di
    7 KB (1,222 words) - 20:02, 2 December 2009
  • ...nt, helped influence—controversial changes in legal journalism. Lawyers, judges, and the media are divided over whether the public is served or misled by t
    7 KB (1,133 words) - 00:24, 7 January 2010
  • ...no other way to prove the existence of a contract or its terms. Gradually, judges came to the conclusion that a contract could be proved by introducing a wri
    3 KB (470 words) - 17:40, 11 December 2009
  • ...ed funds for research and education to enhance knowledge and awareness for judges and judicial staff in matters involving <span>[[Domestic Violence|domestic
    10 KB (1,497 words) - 22:44, 2 February 2010
  • Judges generally have wide discretion to craft individualized sentences within sta ...lected in deliberations of the American public, legislators, scholars, and judges. ''Atkins'' overruled ''Penry v. Lynaugh'', 492 U.S. 302, 109 S. Ct. 2934,
    40 KB (6,361 words) - 21:51, 7 January 2010
  • ...ied discipline, it has produced findings that have influenced legislators, judges, prosecutors, lawyers, <span>[[Probation|probation]]</span> officers, and p
    18 KB (2,675 words) - 22:35, 28 May 2014
  • ...tep down. In 1995, Crockett's story was recounted in a chapter of <i>Black Judges on Justice.</i> Crockett died on September 7, 1997, in Washington, D.C, aft <p><i>Black Judges on Justice: Perspectives from the Bench.</i> New York: New Press.</p>
    7 KB (1,208 words) - 23:35, 30 December 2009
  • ...lected in deliberations of the American public, legislators, scholars, and judges. ''Atkins'' overruled ''Penry v. Lynaugh'', 492 U.S. 302, 109 S.Ct. 2934, 1
    10 KB (1,579 words) - 20:57, 23 February 2010
  • ...nocal, Armando M. 1998. "Proposed Guidelines for Cy Pres Distribution." <i>Judges Journal</i> 37 (winter): 22.</p>
    5 KB (803 words) - 20:09, 2 December 2009
  • ...ientifically valid. The Court also imposed a gatekeeping function on trial judges by charging them with preventing "junk science" from entering the courtroom ...Kumho'', the Court held that the gatekeeping obligation imposed upon trial judges by ''Daubert'' applies to scientific testimony as well as to expert opinion
    6 KB (910 words) - 16:07, 16 March 2011
  • ...opinion of qualified medical personnel will be taken into consideration by judges when a controversy exists as to whether an individual is still alive or has
    18 KB (2,883 words) - 18:55, 4 February 2010
  • ...n equitable proceedings. To preserve their power in equitable proceedings, judges must have the authority to punish violations through the power of contempt,
    7 KB (1,192 words) - 19:05, 7 January 2010
  • ...an>, an action for damages from someone who broke an agreement. Gradually, judges began to demand firm proof of the agreement, and finally they would accept
    3 KB (431 words) - 17:44, 11 December 2009
  • ...at provide for declaratory judgments. Most declaratory judgment laws grant judges discretion to decide whether or not to issue a declaratory judgment.</p>
    3 KB (399 words) - 20:14, 2 December 2009
  • ... be granted. Even where the formal demurrer is no longer used, lawyers and judges often use the old term for an argument of the same type.</p>
    2 KB (312 words) - 20:17, 2 December 2009
  • ...cs routinely include a vociferous use of the media, on the assumption that judges and juries are influenced by what they see and read. Besides numerous inter ...thorities were to engage in torture to extract information from prisoners, judges should have to issue "torture warrants."
    13 KB (2,094 words) - 21:19, 28 May 2014
  • ...ry minimum and enhanced-sentence statutes leave little or no discretion to judges in setting the terms of a sentence. ...atory sentence legislation imprudent, unwise, and potentially unjust. Most judges feel that sentencing guidelines, which prescribe sentences that may be alte
    11 KB (1,670 words) - 16:59, 11 December 2009
  • <p>As a result, philosophers, criminologists, judges, lawyers, and others have debated whether and to what extent any criminal j
    2 KB (294 words) - 20:19, 2 December 2009
  • ...the president and the governors of the various states, trial and appellate judges, and administrative agencies are among the public officers and offices char ...nder this Constitution, the Laws of the United States, and Treaties made." Judges' decisions must be made based on the "rule of law," which, in the United St
    12 KB (1,847 words) - 20:42, 5 January 2010
  • ''An explicit disagreement by one or more judges with the decision of the majority on a case before them.'' ...understand the dissenter's analysis of the majority opinion. Attorneys and judges may also cite a dissent if they agree with its reasoning and conclusion and
    7 KB (1,035 words) - 16:41, 31 December 2009
  • ...t would be without the evidence" (Fed. R. Evid. 401). The Court found that judges have a responsibility to "ensure that any and all scientific testimony or e
    13 KB (2,091 words) - 20:24, 2 December 2009
  • ... in 1896. Doe has been regarded by legal historians as one of the greatest judges in U.S. history but he remains an obscure figure. He is best remembered for
    3 KB (509 words) - 16:25, 11 December 2009
  • ...[[Personal Property|personal property]]</span>, and other information. The judges gathered their information by summoning each man and having him give testim
    1 KB (246 words) - 20:25, 2 December 2009
  • ... and 42 U.S.C.A.]). The act authorized research and education programs for judges and judicial staff to enhance knowledge and awareness of domestic violence
    11 KB (1,734 words) - 17:54, 14 April 2011
  • <p>Drug courts concentrate the efforts of judges, prosecutors, defense counsel, substance-abuse treatment specialists, proba ...g special dockets that are modeled after the drug court format. Courts and judges have become more receptive to new approaches and thus have brought about a
    9 KB (1,427 words) - 20:29, 2 December 2009
  • "Judges May Weigh Full Drinking Record." 2002. ''Boston Globe'' (November 28).
    5 KB (790 words) - 15:38, 14 June 2011
  • ...tend that Dworkin's theory would place too much discretion in the hands of judges, essentially changing law to partisan politics.</p><p>Dworkin is also co-ch
    5 KB (747 words) - 21:32, 2 December 2009
  • Trial court judges are given less latitude under the Excessive Bail Clause. Bail is the amount A constitutional standard that allows judges to strike down legislation that they find shocking, but to let stand other
    20 KB (3,114 words) - 20:58, 23 February 2010
  • ...lso held elections for a wide range of other government officials, such as judges, attorneys general, district attorneys, public school officials, and police
    22 KB (3,510 words) - 21:34, 2 December 2009
  • ... its inception, the Eleventh Amendment has fueled heated discussions among judges and lawyers about the appropriate manner in which it should be interpreted. ... lawsuit. Under what is sometimes called party-based jurisdiction, federal judges have the power to decide cases affecting "Ambassadors" and "other public Mi
    16 KB (2,579 words) - 21:34, 2 December 2009
  • Judges were hostile to attempts by state governments to regulate the hours and wag
    20 KB (3,030 words) - 15:35, 25 October 2011
  • ... the judges are said to be sitting'' en banc. ''Similarly, only one of the judges of the'' <span>[[U.S. Tax Court|U.S. Tax Court]]</span> ''will typically he
    837 B (148 words) - 16:46, 11 December 2009
  • ...n several ways. The combatants fought in an adversarial arena before robed judges who presided over the battle. The accused person was required to put on a d ...o laid the groundwork for the common-law method of deciding cases, whereby judges make decisions in accordance with other decisions they have rendered in sim
    22 KB (3,476 words) - 23:57, 17 December 2010
  • ...-upon value for each of the competing interests, it is often difficult for judges to apply the balancing test in a consistent fashion. ...rts apply the balancing test for nuisance actions on a case-by-case basis, judges generally follow certain principles. The injury in question must be real an
    56 KB (8,484 words) - 23:02, 24 February 2010
  • ...England's law courts. Through the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, the judges in England's courts developed the common law, a system of accepting and dec ...ity produced results based on the whim of the king's chancellor. Commonlaw judges considered equity <span>[[Arbitrary|arbitrary]]</span> and a royal encroach
    15 KB (2,509 words) - 21:39, 2 December 2009
  • ...[[Common Law|common law]]</span> to be applied in such cases, gave federal judges the right to ignore state rules that were not enacted as statutes by their ... Court reversed the decision and struck down the rule that allowed federal judges to ignore state court decisions in diversity cases. Although this rule had
    5 KB (804 words) - 19:48, 11 February 2011
  • ...&#xA7; 591). This provided in certain limited circumstances for a panel of judges to appoint an independent counsel to investigate and, if necessary, prosecu
    9 KB (1,350 words) - 21:41, 2 December 2009
  • ...legal profession is more self-regulating (i.e., regulated by attorneys and judges themselves rather than by government or outside agencies) than most profess ...efine <span>[[Attorney Misconduct|attorney misconduct]]</span> and empower judges to discipline unethical conduct by attorneys. For example, rule 11 of the F
    16 KB (2,398 words) - 22:57, 4 February 2010
  • ...deral rules. Both state and federal rules of evidence serve as a guide for judges and attorneys so that they can determine whether to admit evidence—that i ...l Rules of Evidence and most jurisdictions state that jurors and presiding judges are not competent to testify in the case before them.
    27 KB (4,251 words) - 22:41, 28 May 2014
  • ...n>[[Code Of Judicial Conduct|code of judicial conduct]]</span> discourages judges from such ex parte communications. Under rule 4.2 of the ABA Model Rules of
    5 KB (824 words) - 21:41, 2 December 2009
  • ... the Court "to deter police misconduct rather than to punish the errors of judges and magistrates." Under this interpretation, excluding evidence obtained th
    14 KB (2,245 words) - 22:31, 23 February 2010
  • ...and obligations has grown dramatically since the 1970s, as legislators and judges have reexamined and redefined legal relationships surrounding <span>[[Divor ...y of their children. This tradition weakened in the nineteenth century, as judges fashioned two doctrines governing child custody. The "best-interests-of-the
    24 KB (3,683 words) - 22:09, 28 June 2011
  • ...ssion. In addition, <span>[[Administrative Law|administrative law]]</span> judges conduct evidentiary adjudicatory hearings and write initial decisions. In J ...nel, authorized under the CDA and consisting of two federal district court judges and the chief judge of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit. The
    15 KB (2,175 words) - 17:08, 6 January 2013
  • ...udicial misconduct; and their judges' salary cannot be reduced while those judges serve in office. ... Such courts can possess whatever jurisdiction Congress deems appropriate. Judges can be appointed by specific terms of years, and salaries can be adjusted i
    22 KB (3,572 words) - 00:40, 7 January 2010
  • ...ing and policy research, systems development, and continuing education for judges and court personnel. It is located in the Thurgood Marshall Federal Judicia ... gave the FJC a broad mandate to improve the performance of the courts and judges through research, planning, and education.</p>
    4 KB (682 words) - 21:46, 2 December 2009
  • ...tes and proceedings before U.S.'' <span>[[Bankruptcy|bankruptcy]]</span> ''judges and U.S. magistrates, to the extent and with the exceptions stated in the r
    7 KB (1,074 words) - 18:45, 3 February 2010
  • <p>Judges have five sources of guidance for interpreting the Constitution: the origin <p>Dorsen, Norman. 1994."How American Judges Interpret the Bill of Rights." <i>Constitutional Commentary</i> 11 (fall).<
    15 KB (2,397 words) - 21:47, 2 December 2009
  • ...t transformed from an agrarian society to an industrial society. Few state judges appreciated this shift as keenly as the Massachusetts court's chief justice
    9 KB (1,397 words) - 22:56, 24 February 2010
  • ...ferent agendas, feminist jurisprudence has changed the way legislators and judges look at issues. By asking the "woman question," feminists have identified g <p>The act provides programs for research and education of judges and judicial staff members geared to enhance their knowledge and awareness
    17 KB (2,642 words) - 21:48, 2 December 2009
  • ...characterized the legal system of the day when he quipped, Do you know how judges make the common law?—Just as a man makes laws for his dog. Before Field's
    9 KB (1,475 words) - 23:02, 8 January 2010
  • ...tantly, can people agree on what is meant by the word ''religion'' so that judges may know when religion is being "established" or when the right to its "fre ...al conduct, states have imposed restrictions on what candidates or sitting judges may say about issues, in hopes of preserving judicial independence and assu
    35 KB (5,281 words) - 22:13, 21 May 2010
  • ... her funeral included the governor and several prominent federal and state judges.
    9 KB (1,412 words) - 22:26, 30 August 2010
  • ...on that is principally aimed at economic affairs, the Court continued, and judges should refrain from questioning the wisdom or policy judgments underlying s
    7 KB (1,019 words) - 21:52, 2 December 2009
  • ... lower court meets during two days each month. The FISCR consists of three judges named by the chief justice. Under FISA, the FISCR has jurisdiction to hear ...the first time that the FISC heard a case en banc, meaning that all of the judges were present. The government in the case urged the court to accept the lowe
    7 KB (1,072 words) - 01:03, 27 April 2010
  • ...peached for his actions, which were contrary to the ethical provision that judges must be free of the appearance of impropriety. Fortas ended the controversy
    11 KB (1,668 words) - 22:14, 9 December 2009
  • ...d attorneys general are disqualified from the role of magistrate. However, judges, lawyers, and court clerks all potentially qualify as "neutral and detached
    26 KB (4,205 words) - 18:20, 4 May 2010
  • ...t the turn of the century. In contrast to the positivists who claimed that judges could apply known rules to the available facts and arrive with certainty at
    6 KB (965 words) - 21:55, 2 December 2009
  • ...ing many of them obtain a clerkship with one of the United States' leading judges, including <span>[[Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr.|Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr.]]</s ...ve the outcome may seem. Advocates of judicial self-restraint believe that judges, many of whom are appointed to the bench for life and are therefore not acc
    14 KB (2,145 words) - 21:44, 11 January 2010
  • ...read quickly. According to one of his former law clerks, lawyers and other judges packed his courtroom during their spare time to watch Gignoux's performance
    8 KB (1,235 words) - 22:57, 2 December 2009
  • ...76 U.S. 681, 84 S. Ct. 984, 12 L. Ed. 2d 23 (1964), he argued that federal judges should not be allowed to use their <span>[[Contempt|contempt]]</span> power
    8 KB (1,172 words) - 22:22, 10 December 2009
  • ...Appeals for the Second Circuit. On the court, Hand served with many famous judges, including conservative judge Thomas Walter Swan, Hand's first cousin Augus ...er each judge had reached an independent conclusion did all the conferring judges exchange memos and meet to discuss the case. This process encouraged more d
    11 KB (1,850 words) - 23:59, 2 December 2009
  • <p>"Remembering the Fourth Circuit Judges: A History from 1941 to 1998." 1998. <i>Washington and Lee Law Review</i> 5
    4 KB (560 words) - 23:36, 30 December 2009
  • ...ng that without the movement, "probably neither you nor I would be Federal judges today." He was also sharply critical of Thomas's record. He noted that afte [[Category:judges]]
    8 KB (1,240 words) - 00:40, 14 January 2010
  • ...ors when he insisted on filling nine new circuit judgeships with competent judges rather than using the positions as opportunities for political paybacks.</p
    6 KB (1,037 words) - 00:29, 3 December 2009
  • ...tendees to the difficulties encountered, and errors made, by inexperienced judges.</p> ...his younger colleagues. "He's regarded as one of the premier federal trial judges in the United States," said U.S. district judge John T. Copenhaver, Jr., at
    9 KB (1,504 words) - 00:29, 3 December 2009
  • ...al guilt of the wrongdoer. Holmes noted that common-law principles require judges and juries to interpret contractual relations from the perspective of an av ...uitions of public policy, avowed or unconscious, even the prejudices which judges share with their fellow-men, have had a good deal more to do than the syllo
    11 KB (1,753 words) - 01:03, 9 January 2010
  • ...tor, and his mother was a descendant of Revolutionary leaders and colonial judges. In addition, one of his uncles was <span>[[Joseph P. Bradley|Joseph P. Bra
    3 KB (529 words) - 00:46, 3 December 2009
  • ...een every type and variation of political influence brought to bear on the judges and courts in Missouri. During his years of service in the Missouri courts, ...the organization's national efforts to promote merit selection systems for judges. He traveled across the United States to promote the concept and practice o
    8 KB (1,347 words) - 00:58, 3 December 2009
  • ...hing, and shelter—but only the necessities he deemed appropriate. Today, judges have taken the support obligation further and construed the term necessary
    18 KB (2,816 words) - 18:33, 24 February 2010
  • ... wrong. Public policy grounds for granting immunity from civil lawsuits to judges and officials in the <span>[[Executive Branch|executive branch]]</span> of
    17 KB (2,702 words) - 22:53, 28 May 2014
  • ... of limitations on the power of an office. Under the Constitution, federal judges are held to the most exacting standard: They may remain on the bench only " ... has voted to impeach a small number of federal appeals and district court judges. In 1989, U.S. district court judge Alcee Hastings, of Miami, became only t
    12 KB (1,893 words) - 23:23, 6 January 2010
  • In most jurisdictions, judges have a wide range of incarceration options. As an alternative to jail or pr
    21 KB (3,383 words) - 00:11, 13 July 2010
  • ... has an opportunity to question the lay assessors for bias. Generally, the judges vote after the lay assessors vote, so that they do not influence the conclu
    6 KB (974 words) - 01:05, 3 December 2009
  • Nevertheless, after the Civil Rights Act was passed, judges and other federal officials enforcing it required schools to go beyond raci
    19 KB (2,818 words) - 22:23, 30 August 2010
  • <p>The ICJ is made up of 15 jurists from different countries. No two judges at any given time may be from the same country. The court's composition is ...avoring established powers. Under articles 3 and 9 of the ICJ Statute, the judges on the ICJ should represent "the main forms of civilization and &#x2026; pr
    8 KB (1,211 words) - 01:07, 3 December 2009
  • ...d Nations (UN). It consists of 15 judges, each from a different state. The judges are elected by the UN General Assembly and the UN Security Council and must
    15 KB (2,343 words) - 22:00, 4 February 2010
  • ...e whenever the meaning of a legal document must be determined. Lawyers and judges search for meaning using various interpretive approaches and rules of const ...urt interprets a statute, it is guided by rules of statutory construction. Judges are to first attempt to find the "plain meaning" of a law, based solely on
    4 KB (657 words) - 01:08, 3 December 2009
  • ...judiciary. Jefferson and the Republicans worried that Federalist-appointed judges would use judicial review to strike down Republican legislation.
    9 KB (1,325 words) - 18:44, 7 January 2010
  • Johnson was one of only a few judges to apply vigorously the U.S. Supreme Court's <span>[[School Desegregation|s ...knowledges the dedication and contributions to justice made by all federal judges, by recognizing the specific achievements of one judge who has contributed
    10 KB (1,498 words) - 00:20, 7 January 2010
  • ... over a case may initiate investigations on related matters, but generally judges do not have the power to conduct investigations for other branches or agenc ...es a judge may be asked to declare that a certain law is unconstitutional. Judges have the power to rule that a law is unconstitutional and therefore void, b
    6 KB (1,053 words) - 22:36, 23 February 2010
  • ...l A. 1999. "Capping Judicial Discretion: Drawing the Line for Oregon Trial Judges in Granting Motions for Judgment Notwithstanding the Verdict of a New Trial
    6 KB (1,064 words) - 01:13, 3 December 2009
  • ...as some form of administrative structure that seeks to enhance the work of judges and to provide services to attorneys and citizens who use the judicial syst ...and a record of all final judgments, and to process paperwork generated by judges.</p>
    5 KB (794 words) - 01:13, 3 December 2009
  • ...(Pub. L. No. 67-297, 423 Stat. 837, 838). The Conference of Senior Circuit Judges was renamed the Judicial Conference of the United States in 1948 (Act of Ju ...of judicial misconduct or judicial disability, and it may reassign federal judges to different federal courts. The final decision on administrative matters t
    8 KB (1,276 words) - 01:13, 3 December 2009
  • <p>Judicial immunity protects judges from liability for monetary damages in civil court, for acts they perform p ...ead to take their complaints to an appellate court. The idea of protecting judges from civil damages was derived from this basic tenet and served to solidify
    8 KB (1,305 words) - 01:13, 3 December 2009
  • ...hereof … shall be the supreme law of the land." It goes on to say that, "judges in every state shall be bound thereby." This means that state laws may not ...icial restraint is that statutes are presumptively valid, which means that judges assume legislators did not intend to violate the Constitution. It follows t
    11 KB (1,782 words) - 23:42, 6 January 2010
  • ...e and federal courts, tribunals, and administrative bodies, as well as the judges and other judicial officials who preside over them. ... this system became more self-conscious. Concerns were expressed that both judges and juries were rendering biased decisions based on irrelevant and untrustw
    13 KB (2,070 words) - 19:56, 7 January 2010
  • ...veral states at once, and thus would be less prone to bias than were state judges.</p>
    12 KB (1,864 words) - 01:14, 3 December 2009
  • ...e, and logically deduces a rule that will govern the outcome of a dispute. Judges derive relevant legal principles from various sources of legal authority, i ...study, observation, and experience." Coke also believed that only lawyers, judges, and others trained in the law could fully comprehend and apply this highes
    24 KB (3,626 words) - 17:01, 25 February 2010
  • ...red to come forward as witnesses and to give evidence before the monarch's judges. Not until the fourteenth century did jurors cease to be witnesses and begi ... with anyone. Some instructions vary across jurisdictions and according to judges, such as whether jurors will be allowed to take notes during the trial; gen
    13 KB (2,050 words) - 22:41, 23 February 2010
  • ... they are elected, and in others, they are appointed by the governor or by judges. Commissioners may be regarded as officers of the state or county or of the
    817 B (139 words) - 01:14, 3 December 2009
  • ...n their own consciences. It espouses the concept that jurors should be the judges of both law and fact.</i></p> ... side to granting juries such unyielding control of trials: early colonial judges were essentially laymen selected from among their peers, and they often kne
    9 KB (1,520 words) - 01:14, 3 December 2009
  • .... A title given to certain judges, such as federal and state supreme court judges.</i></p>
    250 B (42 words) - 01:15, 3 December 2009
  • ...f the peace are also known as magistrates, squires, and police or district judges. In some districts, such as the District of Columbia, justices of the peace <p>Carnahan, Douglas G. 1999. "Justice of the Peace; Judges Practice the Fine Art of Repairing Division." <i>The Los Angeles Daily Jour
    6 KB (934 words) - 01:15, 3 December 2009
  • ...ey convicted. The term <i>kangaroo court</i> comes from the image of these judges hopping from place to place, guided less by concern for justice than by the
    2 KB (329 words) - 01:15, 3 December 2009
  • ...hts under Law, and a member of the President's Commission for Selection of Judges. She has also served on the boards of the [[NAACP_Legal_Defense_and_Educati
    6 KB (967 words) - 17:49, 8 January 2010
  • ...ated by prior cases and the need to maintain precedent even if the current judges do not agree with the original ruling.
    7 KB (993 words) - 22:51, 10 December 2009
  • ...eappointed to a professorship at Columbia. He was consulted by lawyers and judges about legal issues, and gave a series of lectures at Columbia that became,
    5 KB (800 words) - 01:18, 3 December 2009
  • <p>Every day, lawyers are asked by their clients to persuade judges to rule in their favor. One way in which they try to accomplish this task i
    5 KB (749 words) - 01:18, 3 December 2009
  • ...ennsylvania's <span>[[Equity|equity]]</span> courts than did all the other judges of the state. Equity courts provided a necessary alternative for petitioner
    3 KB (485 words) - 01:18, 3 December 2009
  • ...ernative to the Court of Common Pleas, which was comprised of professional judges. At first the two courts heard different types of cases. However, over the
    2 KB (339 words) - 01:18, 3 December 2009
  • ...cuting Klan violence. Local and state law enforcement officials, including judges, were often sympathetic to the KKK or were subject to intimidation by the g
    7 KB (1,107 words) - 23:54, 6 January 2010
  • ...ses of civil rights workers removed from state courts and heard by federal judges. The law also mandated that federal courts grant the defendants bail, somet
    8 KB (1,321 words) - 21:57, 7 January 2010
  • ... also instrumental in hiring professors who were not practicing lawyers or judges, an approach unheard of at the time.
    7 KB (1,076 words) - 21:18, 8 January 2010
  • ...s in the United States are made by federal, state, and local legislatures, judges, the president, state governors, and administrative agencies.</p>
    12 KB (2,003 words) - 01:21, 3 December 2009
  • ...ch as sympathy and empathy. A growing number of law students, lawyers, and judges became disenchanted with the limited perspective of their profession, and b ...ciety. This second area of study also analyzes the prose and rhetoric that judges use to explain the legal arguments and conclusions in their judicial opinio
    4 KB (684 words) - 23:21, 6 January 2010
  • ...itten by student members and scholarly articles written by law professors, judges, and attorneys. These articles focus on current developments in the law, ca ...d-1800s it also became important for lawyers to know more specifically how judges were ruling in their own jurisdiction. This need led to the growth of regio
    6 KB (1,008 words) - 01:22, 3 December 2009
  • ...60s legal history was confined mostly to biographies of famous lawyers and judges and to technical analysis of particular areas of <span>[[Substantive Law|su ...s in order to fashion a history of U.S. law. Hurst went beyond the work of judges and courts to find material about the law in constitutional conventions, le
    5 KB (827 words) - 18:24, 31 December 2009
  • ...ch a result that is more fair and just. However, legal positivism requires judges to decide cases in accordance with the law, and not their personal predilec ...esting that the meaning of any written law is determined by the individual judges interpreting them, and until a judge has weighed in on a legal issue, the l
    7 KB (1,088 words) - 18:46, 31 December 2009
  • ... the governor, who had the decisions printed and distributed to all of the judges in the state.
    8 KB (1,232 words) - 22:51, 4 February 2010
  • ...sed on the political, social, and moral predilections of state and federal judges.</p> ... <span>[[World War Ii|world war ii]]</span>, it continues to influence how judges, lawyers, and laypersons think about the law.</p>
    18 KB (2,838 words) - 01:23, 3 December 2009
  • ...stantial involvement in the specialty area and references from lawyers and judges. He must have completed 36 credit hours of specialty <span>[[Continuing Leg
    3 KB (517 words) - 01:24, 3 December 2009
  • ...ssioners on Uniform State Laws, a coalition of over three hundred lawyers, judges, and law professors, who are appointed by the states. Conference members dr
    20 KB (3,418 words) - 01:24, 3 December 2009
  • ...time ordain and establish." Article III, Section 1, also provides that the judges in the Supreme Court and in the inferior courts will not have their pay dim ...ot encumbered by a clause requiring lifetime tenure and pay protection, so judges sitting on Article I courts do not have lifetime tenure, and Congress may r
    7 KB (1,078 words) - 23:53, 4 February 2010
  • ...lved in the furtherance of the public's business—for example, attorneys, judges, jurors, and witnesses whose statements are protected on public policy grou
    22 KB (3,476 words) - 22:55, 28 May 2014
  • ...fifty members of Congress, five cabinet members, ten governors, forty-four judges of state and lower federal courts, and seven foreign ministers graduated fr
    5 KB (812 words) - 22:16, 2 August 2010
  • ...ention. Llewellyn declared that legal opinions must be examined to see how judges are influenced by factors that might have nothing to do with the law. He wr
    7 KB (1,082 words) - 01:30, 3 December 2009
  • ...o countries. Because the language is so broad in scope, legal scholars and judges have suggested that the Logan Act is unconstitutional. Historically, the ac
    4 KB (690 words) - 01:31, 3 December 2009
  • <p>Madison said that to allow unelected federal judges to overturn legislation enacted by the popularly elected branches of govern
    18 KB (2,750 words) - 01:33, 3 December 2009
  • <p>U.S. magistrates are judicial officers appointed by the judges of federal district courts pursuant to the United States Magistrates Act (2
    2 KB (342 words) - 01:33, 3 December 2009
  • ...s heard disputes at a central location in Westminster, and royal itinerant judges traveled locally to dispense the monarch's justice to communities across En
    20 KB (3,202 words) - 01:33, 3 December 2009
  • ...e issue is contested. Some states have adopted financial schedules to help judges determine the appropriate level of support. Although maintenance generally
    5 KB (791 words) - 23:27, 4 March 2010
  • ...unitive Damages|punitive damages]]</span>. Punitive damages are imposed by judges and juries to punish misconduct by a party. Because an action for malicious ...ution is immunity. Generally, the law protects witnesses, police officers, judges, prosecutors, and lawyers from suit for malicious prosecution. Witnesses ar
    16 KB (2,515 words) - 18:55, 24 February 2010

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